Thought of Fukuzawa is the origin of the core sense of values in China
平山氏の依頼により中国広州市中山大学で開催された「第6回日中哲学フォーラ ム」（9月20日～23日）での英語発表（21日）の原稿 Thought of Fukuzawa is the origin of the core sense of values in Chinaを アップロードします。 この原稿は8月に公開された「中国社会主義価値観の源流 は福沢諭吉にある」の英語版です。
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- Thought of Fukuzawa is the origin of the core sense of values in China
Thought of Fukuzawa is the origin of the core sense of values in China
Japan as a model for modernization
It is common knowledge that the modernization policy of Asian countries now refers to Japan after the Meiji Restoration (1868). A well-controlled government will create schools and develop human resources. It is a program in which the government creates trade profits by growing various industries as much as possible, and the government upgrades industries from agriculture to light industry and from light industry to heavy industry. The program has already influenced Thailand's Chakri reforms beginning at the end of the 19th century.
The fact that modern Japan has damaged Asia is another issue. Japan's modernization policy has had a great impact on Asian countries. One person who devised that policy was Yukichi Fukuzawa (1835-1901). This paper proves that the six conditions of civilization politics proposed by Fukuzawa in his book “The Western Situation” (1866) have transformed into the core values of modern Chinese socialism at the end of the historical process.
Fukuzawa's Western Experience
Here, I will explain Fukuzawa's Western experience. Fukuzawa was born in 1835 as the son of a junior officer working for the Osaka Regional Office of the Nakatsu Government in Oita Prefecture, Kyushu. Fukuzawa returned home as a child and received Confucius studies in Nakatsu. In 1854, he studied in Nagasaki to learn the basics of Dutch studies, and the following year he studied Dutch studies more deeply at Tekijuku in Osaka run by Ogata Koan.
In 1858, moved to Edo (Tokyo) and became a teacher at Nakatsu's Dutch school (later Keio University). At the same time, he tried to learn English. In 1860, he visited San Francisco in the United States on the Japanese government ’s warship Kanrinmaru, and after returning to Japan, he was transferred to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs translation office. In 1862 he visited European countries such as England, France, Netherlands, Germany and Russia. In 1866, based on the knowledge gained there, he published “The Western Situation”, which explained the political and economic mechanisms of each country. In 1867, Fukuzawa went to the United States again to visit Washington DC and New York.
Six conditions of civilization politics
As a result of this Western experience, Fukuzawa aimed to spread the six conditions of civilization politics at the beginning of Volume 1 of“The Western Situation”to Japan and to other Asian countries. The conditions are: (1) Respecting individual freedom and ensuring that the law does not bind the public, (2) Ensuring religious freedom, (3) Promoting the development of science and technology, (4) Enhancing school education, (5) Fostering industry through stable politics with appropriate laws and (6) Always trying to improve the welfare of the people.
These six conditions were first presented in "The Western Situation", Volume 1 (1866), and then discussed in detail in "Encouragement of Study" (1872-76) and "Outline of Civilization" (1875). There are few books published later that are completely unrelated to these conditions. In many cases, it contains contents that delve deeper into each condition. For example, (1) is covered by “Easy to understand civil rights” (1878) and “Current affairs” (1881). As for (2), “100 articles of Fukuzawa” (1897) is gathered. For (3), “People's Renewal” (1879), for (4), “Independence of Academic Studies” (1883), for (5), “Easy to understand national power” (1878) and “Business theory” (1893), and for (6), “Power Divide Theory" (1877) deals with.
The theme of the prominent “Encouragement of Study” Chapter 1 (1872) is “Practical study close to ordinary human use” in order to “Be independent, house independent, independent nation” is that you should learn. Not only that, it is a content that strongly appeals to the value of a civilized society created by people who have learned a lot. And here, as well as the need for education, the conditions of civilized politics such as respect for freedom, the introduction of science and technology, and the protection of the people by the government are regarded as important. As a result, this sentence is a summary of Fukuzawa's thoughts as a whole.
Effects of“The Western Situation”on the Meiji Restoration
Generally well-known as "Encouragement of study" Fukuzawa, but in fact, at the stage of“The Western Situation”six years ago, Fukuzawa was named in Japan. It was widespread. There is no policy proposal from 1867 to 1968 that is not influenced by the “The Western Situation”.
"Proposal" (1867) submitted by military scientist Kosaburo Akamatsu (Nagano Prefecture) to prominent Daimyos (politicians) who were involved in political reform has been arranged for “The Western Situation”. “Reform proposal” (1867) submitted by the military scholar Ryokichi Sogane (Kagoshima Prefecture) to the Kagoshima local government was the same as Akamatsu's “Proposal” and was under the influence of “The Western Situation”. The “New Government Charter Eight Method” (1867), written by the reformer Ryoma Sakamoto (affiliated with Kochi Prefecture), is actually an excerpt of “The Western Situation”.
The most important influence on the politics after the Meiji Restoration was the “Five articles of oath” (1868), published by the Emperor Meiji as a word of vows, as a result of the recapture of the conditions of civilization politics in the “The Western Situation”. "The political system" (1868) by the Dajokan (Meiji government) issued as a commentary on this "Five articles of oath" is in fact the first draft of the constitution. It was also based on the translation of the US Constitution in “The Western Situation”. Also, "My Opinion" (1868), written by military scholar Kakuma Yamamoto (affiliated to Fukushima Prefecture), is an itemized content of "The Western Situation", and was a guide for bringing Western civilization into Japan. .
Fukuzawa and Yen Fu had the same ideal
In this way, in Japan, the program of modernization was confirmed as early as the “The Western Situation” published just 12 years after the start of exchange with the West (1854). And the state was maintained as it was.
On the other hand, in China (Qing country) where the opening of the Western countries was 10 years earlier than Japan, Western civilization was only treated as technology, and military modernization was done in accordance with the West, but in the field of thought Westernization did not progress slowly. This is the so-called “China uses the West” theory.
The reason for this is that China (and Korea) had an official examination as a government promotion exam, but Japan did not have it, and a political reform plan that was not based on Confucius was adopted relatively easily. For government officials who wanted to accept Western civilization (Bakufu before the Meiji Restoration, then Meiji government officials), it would be fine if modernization was implemented stably, and it was not a problem whether or not Confucius was the foundation.
In Japan, there were no restrictions on Confucius, but in China (Qing country) it was not. In China, you can't get promoted unless you receive a certificate. Under such circumstances, Yen Fu (1854-1921) abandoned his enrollment. And it was in his Western experience that Yen Fu, who was trying to open the way as an expert in Western military science, came to the same ideal as Fukuzawa. Yen Fu, who studied at Portsmouth Military College in England from 1877 to 79, learns the limits of "the China uses the West" theory.
After returning to China, Yen Fu was involved in the development of the Chinese navy under Li Hong-zhang, but his westernization theory was not accepted. Ironically, this thought was triggered by the defeat of the Navy, which he developed during the Sino-Japanese War (1894, 95), by the Japanese Navy.
Fukuzawa's student Tsuyoshi Inukai is a fellow of Sun Wen
Nickname of Sun Wen (1866-1925) ,Chu-zan(in Japanese Nakayama)comes from the last name of Emperor Meiji's mother, Keiko Nakayama. It was a coincidence that Sun Wen chose the nickname. However, it is also clear that Sun Wen recognized the successor of the Meiji Restoration so that the fact that Emperor Meiji was the son of Keiko Nakayama could not be forgiven.
After the first exile in Japan from 1895 to 99, when the second exile in 1913, “The Meiji Restoration is the first step of the Chinese Revolution and the Chinese Revolution is the second step of the Meiji Restoration” is being sent to his friend, Tsuyoshi Inukai. This was not a lip service for the time being assured by exile in Japan, but has been consistent since "the Declaration of the association for promoting China" in 1895. The content of the declaration is almost the same as the six conditions of civilized politics, except for the Chinese nationalism.
Liang Chi-chao influenced by Fukuzawa
Fukuzawa's influence on Sun Wen remained indirect via Inukai, but more directly on Liang Chi-chao (1873-1929) Influence relationship is recognized. It was in 1898 that Liang, who had participated in the Hundred Day's Reform with his master Kang You-wei (1858-1927), frustrated in Japan during the Qing Dynasty political reform movement. After that, Liang will spend 14 years in Japan until returning home due to the success of Xinhai Revolution (1911).
Liang, who learned Japanese with tremendous progress, must read "Fukuzawa's autobiography", "Continuation 100 articles of Fukuzawa", "New Women's University", etc., which were serialized in the newspaper "Jijishinpo" at that time. And like Sun Wen, they may have heard about Fukuzawa from Inukai, who took care of Kang and Liang. The “Book of Liberty” and “The New People's Theory”, which should be called the main books, show a strong influence from Fukuzawa's thoughts, especially “Outline of Civilization”. Hu Shih and Mao Tse-tung were also impressed by these books, but the truth was that it was Fukuzawa's thought.
“Although it is not as famous as“ The Book of Liberty ”and“ The New People's Theory ”, an important article is“ Discussing the Authority of the Government and People ”(“ New People's Magazine ”No. 3, 1902). In previous researches, it has been discussed mainly in relation to J.S.Mill's “On Liberty”, which is clearly stated in the text, but its central part is a discussion that deviates from Mill's called the theory of combining forces . In other words, if people are not groups, they cannot develop the inner world (domestic economy) and cannot compete with the outside world (international society), so they become “independent self-employed individuals” on the one hand and “groups that join forces” on the other hand. Probably, it is a tone that strongly links individuals and the state due to the crisis awareness of the exile.
As far as I know, there is no previous researches that links Fukuzawa's ideas to the theory of combining this power. However, the theory of combining powers is that "the nation becomes independent when the individual becomes independent", and the "discussion about the authority of the government and the people" itself is from Chapter 1 to 3 of "Encouragement of Study" . It should be called adaptation. The year 1898, when Liang was exiled to Japan, was the year when the Meiji edition of “Fukuzawa Complete Works” compiled by Fukuzawa himself was released. As Fukuzawa's old works can now be read at once, Liang would have read the entire collection.
Liang's successor, Chen Tu-hsiu
It can be said that the magazine “New Youth” of Chen tu-heiu (1879-1942) took over Liang ’s “New People's Magazine” activities. As a study abroad group in Japan, Chen who breathed the air of Tokyo at the beginning of the 20th century, which was the same as Liang, had almost the same consciousness, but his interest was focused on western civilization and scientificism. Chen later became the first general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, with other people such as Li Ta-chao and Peng Pai were studying abroad at Waseda University. After returning home, they had a great influence on the history of modern China.
Hen once participated in the Xinhai revolution, but Chen and others who were deprived of power by Yuan Shi-kai stepped back in Japan in 1913. Ten years after the death of Fukuzawa, unlike the case of Liang, the obvious influence from Fukuzawa is shadowed. However, what I feel when I read the editorial at that time is the appearance of Fukuzawa behind Chen. For example, the content of “Patriotism and Awareness” published in 1914 is exactly the same as Episode 93 “The Government Represents the Public Spirit of the People” in “100 articles of Fukuzawa”. “Notify Youth” (1915) summarizes the new Chinese youth code of conduct into six items, but the contents are almost the same as the six conditions of civilized politics.
Fukuzawa's own Meiji version of “Fukuzawa Complete Works” (1898) does not include the thesis on Asian contempt and aggression that was augmented in the Showa version of “Continuation Fukuzawa Complete Works” (1933, 34). Therefore, even if the Chinese of the early 20th century became familiar with Fukuzawa's writing, there was no doubt about the idea. For Chen, his motto of independent esteem may not come solely from Fukuzawa. However, if Chen makes a claim similar to Fukuzawa after coming to Japan, the influence is clear. It seems that Fukuzawa was still a must-read for the exile Chinese in the 1910s.
Chou En-lai ’s successor to Chen
Chou En-lai (1898-1976), one of the leading figures in the establishment of the People's Republic of China. There may be objections to being the successor of the deceased Chen. Here, the successor is not a political successor in the sense that it has taken over the spirit of the magazine “New Youth”.
When Liu Chi-chao was encouraged to study in Japan, Chou's late days were from 1917 to the following year. Chou, who studied at Meiji University and Hosei University, was about to move to Kyoto University, where renowned socialist scholar Hajime Kawakami was founded, but in 1919 he learned that the 5.4 movement was taking place in China. Suddenly returned home.
After that, Chou studied in Paris in 1920 and joined the Communist Party in the process. He returned to China in 1924, when the first collaborative work was established, and became Deputy Chief of Political Affairs at Huang Wei Military School, founded by Sun Wen. By the way, the principal is Chiang Kai-shek, and all three are exiles in Japan. Chou was named after the Xian incident in 1936, but remained in the middle of the Chinese administration until his death as an assistant to Mao Tse-tung.
As a politician, Chou is characterized by not overdoing anything. The role played by Chou, who was appointed Prime Minister by the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, was to steadily develop the nation while soothing Mao who wanted to seek results quickly. His proposal is the so-called “Four modernizations” theory.
From Four modernizations to socialist core values
Although it was the People's Republic of China, which seized continental China, the conflict over the path between radical reform and gradualism continued. “Four modernizations” means modernizations in four sectors: “Industry, Agriculture, National Defense, Science and Technology”. Already proposed by Liu Shao-qi in the 1956 “Government Activity Report” at the 8th National Communist Party of China. However, this Liu proposal was never realized before the radical reform policy (1958-1960) by the radical reformists. In 1964, after the failure of the great breakthrough policy, Chou En-lai proposed modernization of these four sectors in the “Government Activity Report” at the first meeting of the Third NPC.
Comparison of this "Government Activity Report" and the work of Yukichi Fukuzawa, although Fukuzawa has no proposal for agricultural reform, we can point out similarities in many parts. Everything is not a systematic reform under the leadership of the country, but rather the promotion of modernization with respect to the people's spontaneity, so in the end it will follow the modernization of Japan after the Meiji Restoration. In his report, Chou said, “Expanding successful experiences, comparing, learning, catching up, broadly practicing competition to help, working to incorporate new technologies, specializing in work, collaborating, strengthening weak circles, and producing capacity. It is necessary to further raise the technical level. "
This “Four modernizations” route was revived in the last year of Chou En-lai after the break of the Cultural Revolution from 1965 to 75, and was taken over to the route of Deng Xiao-ping. In addition, the current socialist core values are on the extension. In other words, in the activity report by Hu Jin-tao General Secretary at the 18th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in 2012, the socialist core values are 24 characters (wealth, democracy, civilization, peace, freedom, equality, fairness, law , patriotism, esteem, sincerity, friendship). Since then, since Xi Jin-ping was appointed general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee, socialist core values have been repeatedly mentioned and widely advertised.
Comparing these socialist core values and civilization politics, it can be seen that most of the terms overlap. Moreover, if Fukuzawa's “Encouragement of study” and “Outline of civilization” are added to the subject of consideration, it can be said that the core values of socialism and Fukuzawa's ideology are in perfect agreement.
Of course, I do not want to say that modern Chinese leaders have created socialist core values with direct reference to Fukuzawa. Rather, the idea of Fukuzawa, accepted unknowingly by the first generation of revolution who read Liang Chi-chao's “New People's Magazine” and Chen tu-heiu's “New Youth”, is now inherited as a value to be praised.
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